Index of Images
An abandoned mine site a few weeks after seed and fertilizer were applied.
The same abandoned mine site after the third growing season. Note the establishment of invading tree and shrub species.
Figure 3: A typical cut slope being hydroseeded in Interior Alaska.
Figure 4: A small “research class” hydroseeder being used by Plant Materials Center staff in a Southcentral gravel pit plot.
Figure 5: Totes of Arctophila fulva (arctic pendant grass), an emergent grass species, researched by the Plant Materials Center for potential value as a habitat enhancement species. This was one of the few species used in transplanting trials.
Figure 6: A site on Shemya Island where sand erosion was controlled with beach wildrye transplants and seeded grasses, photographed in May 1987.
Figure 7: The same site on Shemya Island in September 1988.
Figure 8: An area selected for natural revegetation monitoring on Shemya Island. This road is being reclaimed with a locally excavated peat overlay that is allowed to develop a vegetation cover without assistance.
Figure 10: The same area after five growing seasons. The natural process works, but takes time.
Figure 11: A landfill compacter being used to loosen and imprint the surface of an old gravel pit.
Figure 12: The imprinted pattern on the surface of the gravel pit. The pock marks trap moisture and seed. The steel wheels of the compacter (sheep’s foot) on the hard surface loosen the soil, forming a more vegetation-friendly condition.
Figure 13: The effect of natural revegetation after two years. Note the establishment of woody species.
Figure 14: The same area after three years.
Figure 15: An area being prepared for natural revegetation by using a ripper bar on a grader. This is the final condition of the prepared surface.
Figure 16: The effect of surface scarification on plant establishment and regrowth after two growing seasons. No seed was applied to the site, but it was fertilized with 500 pounds of 20-20-10 per acre.
Figure 17: Harvesting a natural stand of bluejoint reedgrass, Calamagrostis canadensis, with a standard combine.
Figure 19: A sand quarry restoration project on Adak Island that relied on transplanted beach wildrye (Leymus mollis) sprigs and seeded grasses native to the area. The photo shows one season’s growth.
Figure 20: The same area after three growing seasons.
Figure 21: A small surface disturbance on the Northwest Arctic coast.
Figure 22: The same area after two growing seasons. The vegetation is the result of seeding native species and fertilizing the site with commercial fertilizer.
Figure 23: The same area after three growing seasons.
Figure 25: A typical initial evaluation plot, the 1979 grasses evaluation plot at the Plant Materials Center.
Figure 26: After one winter and another full growing season the 1979 plot has fewer surviving accessions.
Figure 27: After two winters and another growing season the 1979 plot looks even more depleted in 1981.
Figure 28: After initial evaluation it is necessary to increase the amount of seed in the inventory of those species selected for advance testing. This photograph is of one initial increase plot at the Plant Materials Center.
Figure 29: An advanced evaluation plot on a mine site near Nome.
Figure 30: Another advanced evaluation plot on the Arctic coast.
Figure 31: An advanced evaluation plot on a mine site located in Interior Alaska.
Figure 32: Interior Alaska Highway advanced evaluation plot.
Figure 33: ‘Alyeska’ polargrass (Arctagrostis latifolia) is one of the cultivars being produced by the PMC for use in revegetation. This was one of the early cultivars developed by the University of Alaska.
Figure 34: ‘Kenai’ polargrass (also Arctagrostis latifolia) was developed for southern regions of Alaska.
Figure 35: ‘Norcoast’ Bering hairgrass, Deschampsia beringensis, is an important revegetation species for coastal areas in Alaska. This cultivar was developed by the University of Alaska.
Figure 36: ‘Nortran’ tufted hairgrass
Figure 37: ‘Caiggluk’ Tilesius’ wormwood, Artemisia tilesii, is a cultivar developed by the PMC. This broadleaf has a wide range of adaptability throughout Alaska.
Figure 38: ‘Nugget’ Kentucky bluegrass is no longer recommended for standard revegetation. Its use should be limited to landscaping projects in urban or residential areas. This field is a foundation seed production field at the PMC. The other two cultivars of Kentucky bluegrass resemble ‘Nugget’.
Figure 39: ‘Reeve’ beach wildrye was a 1991 release by the Alaska Plant Materials Center. This cultivar, unlike the native collection ‘Benson’ beach wildrye, was released for seed production.
Figure 40: Adak Germplasm arctic bluegrass
Figure 41: Viviplets of a viviparous arctic bluegrass plant are shown in this photograph. Note the root development. This root development occurred in less than 24 hours.
Figure 42: Andrew Bay Germplasm large-glume bluegrass
Figure 43: Clam Lagoon Germplasm beach fleabane
Figure 44: Henderson Ridge Germplasm red fescue
Figure 45: Kotzebue Germplasm arctic wild chamomile
Figure 46: Lowell Point Germplasm meadow barley
Figure 47: Nelchina Germplasm spike trisetum
Figure 48: Solomon Germplasm thickspike wheatgrass
Figure 49: Teller Germplasm alpine bluegrass
Figure 50: Tin City in production at the PMC
Figure 51: This photograph is of a Tin City viviplet. These reproductive units are smaller than the progeny from the Adak Germplasm release of arctic bluegrass.
Figure 52: Tok Germplasm Jakutsk snow parsley
Figure 53: Twenty Mile Germplasm boreal yarrow
Figure 54: Wainwright Germplasm slender wheatgrass
Figure 65: A coastal wetland site needing revegetation. This area was reseeded with locally collected Lyngby’s sedge seed and fertilized in May 1995. This project is an example of what can be accomplished with locally harvested seed.
Figure 66: The same site after one growing season.
Figure 67: This photograph, taken in September 1997, shows the results after three complete growing seasons.
Figure 68: Harvesting a wild stand of fireweed with standard farm equipment.
Figure 69: Removing harvested fireweed from a flail vac. Note the condition of the yet-to-be-cleaned seed.
Figure 70: A tow-behind seed stripper being used to harvest beach wildrye seed on the Chukchi Sea coast. This is a natural stand being harvested. Note that only the seed is being removed.
Figure 71: Broadcast seeding using shoulder-carried seeders works well on small areas and steep slopes where motorized equipment may have problems.
Figure 72: Drill seeders are specialized types of equipment that work best on level sites with fine soils.
Figure 73: Brillion seeders are forgiving and can be used on gravelly and rocky sites more reliably than other drill seeders.
Figure 74: A small tow-behind hydroseeder in use
Figure 75: Hydroseeding a large-cut slope. This is the ideal area and use for a hydroseeder.
Figure 76: Well-placed excelsior blankets being used to control erosion prior to vegetation growth.
Figure 77: Damage to an excelsior blanket product when used in severe wind areas. The plastic backing separated from the wood fiber and created a non-degradable mess capable of entrapping small wildlife.
Figure 78: The plastic web or backing has created traps that have ensnared birds and fish - the use of this product should be carefully considered and based on true need and area of use, considering potential consequences.
Figure 79: The technique of using a clam gun to extract sedges for transplanting.
Figure 80: A typical beach wildrye sprig. Note that this example could be divided into at least three individual sprigs.
Figure 81: A mechanically prepared planting area ready for sprigs of beach wildrye.
Figure 82: A worker demonstrates the proper drop and stomp technique for large-scale beach wildrye planting.
Figure 83: A site correctly transplanted with beach wildrye sprigs. A Brillion seeder plants perennial seeded grasses over the sprigs.
Figure 84: The nearly completed beach wildrye transplanting project in May 1987 at Shemya.
Figure 85: Shemya project in 1988.
Figure 86: Final product as it appeared in 1989.
Figure 87: This site met the requirements for natural revegetation conditions.
Figure 88: After one full year the natural revegetation process was beginning.
Figure 89: After three years the process of natural revegetation was well underway.
Figure 90: Finally, after four years, the process was satisfactorily complete.
Figure 91: A river flood plain which was also revegetated with enhanced natural revegetation techniques.
Figure 92: ‘Arctared’ red fescue closely resembles all the red fescues.
Figure 93: ‘Egan’ American sloughgrass
Figure 94: ‘Sourdough’ bluejoint reedgrass
Figure 95: ‘Tundra’ glaucous bluegrass
Figure 96: ‘Gruening’ alpine bluegrass
Figure 97: Annual ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum
Figure 98: Attu Germplasm longawn sedge
Figure 99: Black Rapids Germplasm field
Figure 100: Field production of Butte Germplasm beautiful Jacob’s ladder near Fairbanks, AK.
Figure 101: Cantwell Germplasm downy wildrye
Figure 102: Casco Cove Germplasm beach lovage
Figure 103: Council Germplasm arctic bluegrass
Figure 104: Knik Germplasm wild iris
Figure 105: Kobuk Germplasm dwarf fireweed
Figure 106: Ninilchik Germplasm nootka alkaligrass
Figure 107: Nome Germplasm glaucous bluegrass
Figure 108: Paxson Germplasm alpine sweetvetch
Figure 109: Port Clarence Germplasm largeflower speargrass
Figure 110: Safety Germplasm viviparous fescue
Figure 111: ‘Service’ big bluegrass
Figure 112: Shemya Germplasm dusty miller
Figure 114: Slana Germplasm tufted wheatgrass
Figure 115: Mentasta Germplasm staghorn cinquefoil
Figure 116: Franklin Bluffs Germplasm nodding locoweed
Figure 117: Pioneer Peak Germplasm nootka reedgrass
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